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FAQ PASTRY INDEX PAGE

FAQs

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A1.
Yes you can. Use clear alcohol like vodka.

 

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A2.
Brown sugar, lemon juice, molasses, apple sauce, buttermilk, vinegar, cream of tartar, maple syrup, cocoa powder (not Durch processed).

 

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A3.
FAQ Answer 3a

 

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A4.
FAQ Answer 4a

 

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B1.
Cut the butter in small cubic pieces. Cover them in plastic wrap and soften by tapping them using a rolling pin
OR
once you cut the butter in smaller pieces, put them in a mixer bowl and beat for about a minute using the paddle attachment (best for large recipes)
OR
Heat the cubic pieces of butter in microwave in 15 second intervals until softened. But, be careful because in certain situations you do not want meleted butter, eg; making puff pasty dough.

 

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B2.
A bain-marie is French for ‘hot water bath’. This technique is used in pastry to heat delicate mixtures gently and gradually to a desired temperature monitored with a digital thermometer. An example of this is when making Swiss meringue buttercream.

 

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B3.
Using cold butter may leave some lumps of butter in the batter, so the batter will look grainy. Using cold butter will not give you a perfect fat distribution all throughout the batter.

 

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B4.
The Blackberries, Blueberries, raspberries and white currants are considered as berries

 

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B5.
Beurrage is the chunk of butter that you add in the dough (détrempe) in order to begin laminating the dough, in other words creating layers of butter and dough. This type of dough is known as puff pastry dough.

 

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B6.
First of all biscuits are American, while scones are British. Some of the differences between the two are;

  • Scones contain more sugar than biscuits.
  • Biscuits contain a lot of buttermilk while scones contain quite a bit of butter and whipping cream.

 

 

 

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B7.
Bleaching flour diminishes gluten formation and increases the ability of the starches within the flour to absorb more liquids.

 

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B8.
If the brown sugar has become hard, place in a zip lock bag the brown sugar with a slice of apple. Seal the bag and leave it closed for a few days. This will bring back its softness.

 

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B9.
To 454g of butter (1 pound), you can add anywhere from 1 to 1 1/2 tsp of salt to turn unsalted butter to salted.

 

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B10.
Butter contains an average of about 17% water, 82% fat and 1% milk solids.

 

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B11.
If you want to have an absolutely white buttercream, use shortening instead of butter, but you will be compromising on taste.

 

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B12.
Buttercreams made with eggs and cooked sugar give best shelf life.

 

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B13.
Buttercream is used almost everywhere. It can be used as a filling to birthday or wedding cakes., log cakes, and many varieties of petits fours. Buttercream is also used to decorate cakes, eg; making cake border shells using star tips.

 

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B14.
To give buttercream a unique flavor, you can flavor it with vanilla extract, pitachio paste, praline paste, caremel, coffee extract or chocolate couverture. You may also use liqueurs such as Grand marnier, Kirsch, Rum, Cointrau.

 

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B15.
Buttercream can be made in various ways. It can be made by making;

  • Italian meringue
  • Swiss meringue
  • Pate a bombe; eggs (whole eggs, egg yolks or a combination of both)
  • Pastry cream

 

 

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B16.
You can use sour milk to replace the buttermilk that you do not have at hand. Add 1 tablespoon of white vinegar per cup of milk need, to replicate the buttermilk sourness. Let milk mixture sit for 10 minutes until the milk becomes acidic. The milk will begin to curdle, this is normal.

 

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B17.
Batters in pastry can be classified according to the batter thickness;

  • Thick batters
    • Cream puff pastry (pate a choux) batter
    • Pound cake batter
    • cookie batters
  • Airy batters
    • Sponge cake batters
    • Meringues
    • Souffles
  • Liquid batters
    • Pancakes
    • Crepes
    • Waffles
    • deep frying batters

 

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B18.
FAQ Answer 18b

 

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B19.
FAQ Answer 19b

 

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B20.
FAQ Answer 20b

 

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C1.
Yes there is a little gadget that you can purchase from our site that will help you to cut even cake layers every time.

 

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C2.
About 400g of Chantilly cream should be enough to mask a three layer 8-inch cake.

 

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C3.
We have mixed Chantilly cream with Italian meringue, in equal parts, but it comes out 'runny'. You will notice that the Italian meringue will loose some of its volume once mixed with Chantilly cream.

If you do mix them together, once mixed together, the mixture must be used immediately, and the cake must also be frozen immediately.

 

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C4.
To mix properly the cocoa or chocolate with the buttercream you must follow the following procedure. You must either mix the cocoa powder with some oil and then mix it with a bit of the buttercream, prior to mixing it with the remaining buttercream or melt some chocolate and temper it with some buttercream before folding it in with the remaining buttercream.

 

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C5.
Max. heating temparture for Dark chocolate: 131deg.F / 55deg.C Max. heating temparture for Milk chocolate: 122deg.F / 50deg.C Max. heating temparture for White chocolate: 122deg.F / 50deg.C

 

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C6.
Chocolate glaze that consists of couverture chocolate, heavy cream and oil cannot be left at room temperature. Molds will start to develop after 2 days at room temperature, as shown in photo below;

 moldy chocolate 400x342 j2

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C7.
Cocoa powder contains over 20 percent cocoa butter.

 

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C8.
Cooked sugar is practically used everywhere when making pastry. It is used when making certain butter creams or meringues. It is also used to make decorations for show pieces. It is used for making pulled sugar, poured sugar, glue for show pieces, among other uses.

 

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C9.
Yes you can, but, you must heat it gently in the oven or at very low heat over a bain-marie.

 

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C10.
Do NOT discart it. Simply add water and start the boiling process from the beginning. Keep an eye on the temperature. TIP: Use a digital thermometer that sounds a alarm when a set temperature is reached.

 

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C11.

Follow these guidelines if you wish to make soft, chewy cookies;

  • Keep the hydration level high; whatever liquid is specified in the recipe, just add a bit more of it.
  • Use less sugar. The more sugar you use the crispier the cookie will become.
  • Adding honey or molasses will give you a softer cookie.
  • Add some invert sugar will soften the cookies.
  • Adding maple syrup will give you a softer cookie.
  • Add some glucose will soften the cookies.

 

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C12.
Cornstarch begins to work at a higher temperature than potato starch. So in delicate recipes that you do not wish to loose any volume, it would be preferable to use potato starch, so that the structure of the batter firms up as quickly as possible during baking. Same applies for tapioca and arrowroot or root starches.

 

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C13.
Couverture chocolate contains a higher percentage of cocoa butter than the other chocolates, making it higher quality chocolate than the chocolates you purchase at grocery stores. Couverture chocolate once tempered gives you a very glossy appearance.

 

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C14.
The chocolate will become unworkable. It will become thick and it will crystallize giving it a grainy texture.

 

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C15.
One of the main reasons for using cream of tartar in pastry is to stabilize the egg whites; keep the beaten egg whites in stiff peak longer.

It also stabilizes the whipping cream. Cream of tartar also prevents the sugar from crystallizing when cooking sugar syrups. Cream of tartar being acidic helps to activate the baking soda which is alkaline.

Lemon juice can be substituted for cream of tartar.

 

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C16.
The maximum temperature when making crème anglaise,should not exceed 85deg. C (185deg. F). If you do, the eggs will most probably coagulate.

 

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C17.
To make crème fraîche from scratch, simply mix heavy cream with a little bit of buttermilk, and let mixture sit overnight at room-temperature. The end result will be crème fraîche.

 

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C18.
Crème légère is pastry cream thinned out with some Whipping cream or Chantilly cream.

 

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C19.
Creaming the butter means to bring the butter to a buttercream consistency.

You initially cream the butter on its own using a paddle attachment in order to soften it, for about a minute (or longer if the butter is not room temperature). Then you add the sugar and continue beating until the butter mixture is smooth and creamy and has the consistency of buttercream. Once at this stage, the butter mixture has enough tiny air bubbles in it to slow down the melting of the butter/sugar mixture during baking, in order to give volume to the final product.

 

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C20.

  • Both croissants and brioches contain flour, sugar, salt and yeast.
  • Croissants do not have eggs but brioches do.
  • Croissants use milk as a liquid, while brioches use butter and a bit of milk.
  • Croissants use butter for the beurrage only, while brioches use butter for the detrempe and for the beurrage.

 

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C21.
Crusting buttercream is a buttercream specifically designed to give you a perfect consistency to decorate cakes with. Crusting does not mean that the buttercream will dry out and crack once on the cake, but it means, that the buttercream dries enough to give you a really smooth finish.

 

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C22.

There are a few methods that are used to prevent sugar from crystallizing when cooking sugar with water;

  • Add a bit of glucose, lemon juice, vinegar or cream of tartar in the sugar syrup to prevent sugar crystallization.
  • Using a brush moistened with water, brush the sides of the pan (as the sugar/water mixture starts to come to a boil) to remove any sugar that is stuck on the sides, thus preventing the sugar from crystallizing.
  • Use lid to cover pan. The steam will wash down any sugar that is stuck on the sides, thus preventing the sugar from crystallizing.
  • Do NOT stir the sugar/water mixture once it has began boiling.

 

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C23.
FAQ Answer 23c

 

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C24.
FAQ Answer 24c

 

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C25.
FAQ Answer 25c

 

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C26.
FAQ Answer 26c

 

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C27.
FAQ Answer 27c

 

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C28.
FAQ Answer 28c

 

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C29.
FAQ Answer 29c

 

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C30.
FAQ Answer 30c

 

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D1.
Initially you should use the paddle attachment just to incorporate all the ingredients, and then you should use the hook attachment to complete the kneading. The paddle attachment is no good for two reasons. You can damage the dough if you overmix and/or you can damage the mixer by using the paddle attachment.

 

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D2.
Détrempe is synonymous to dough. Détrempe is what you call the dough, before adding the large chunks of butter.

 

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D3.

To test to see if dough is done proofing, lightly press and release your fingertip into the dough ;

  • If dough springs back immediately, it needs more proofing.
  • If dough springs back slowly, it is ready for baking.
  • If dough does not spring back, it is over-proofed.

 

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D4.
FAQ Answer 4d

 

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E1.
Adding salt (1% of the weight of the egg wash) in the egg wash will increasse the storage life of the egg wash.

 

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E2.
FAQ Answer 2e

 

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E3.
FAQ Answer 3e

 

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E4.
FAQ Answer 4e

 

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F1.
45 deg.C (113 deg.F)

 

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F2.
As a rule of thumb, the amount of buttercream filling used in between each cake layer should be about half the thickness of the sponge cake layer.

 

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F3.
High-ratio cake flour gives the best rise for products that have a high ratio of sugar to flour. It gives excellent crumb color and lots of volume to the final product. If a lot of fat is in the recipe, it will absorb it, preventing the mixture from separating.

 

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F4.
Bread flour has a high protein content which in turn produces a lot of gluten, which results in a chewy texture, while cake flour has low protein which results in less gluten production, giving you tenderness in the final product, eg; sponge cake, cookies, etc. Cake flour absorbs more liquid and fat than bread flour.

 

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F5.
Self rising flour is flour that has a leavening agent already added. It is simply flour with baking powder. If you have All purpose flour, adding about a tsp to 1 ½ tsp of baking powder per kilogram of flour, would make it a self-rising flour.

 

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F6.
Ffondant (also called rolled fondant, white icing, etc.) is an icing that can be rolled out thin (using a rolling pin) and it is used to cover a cake to give a more professional look and finish to the final product (eg; wedding cake, birthday cake, etc).

 

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F7.
Crème Frangipane (Frangipane cream) is created by adding pastry cream to almond cream. As to how much, add 30% of pastry cream; another words, add 30g of pastry cream to 100g of almond cream.

 

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F8.
Fraisage is a technique used to blend ingredients together when you want minimal gluten development, for example making pie dough.

 

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F9.
Frosting and buttercream are not exactly the same thing. When you use all butter when making buttercream, it is called buttercream. When you replace a portion of the butter with cheaper fats, such as shortening or margerine, then it is called a frosting.

 

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F10.
Fruits that contain a lot of pectin are; apples, citrus fruits, cranberries, currants, plums, grapes, and quinces.

 

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F11.
Common fruits that are acidic are; cranberry, grapefruit, kiwi, lemon, limes, orange, pomegranate, pineapple, strawberry, tangerines.

 

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F12.
Fruits that are considered sweet are; Bananas, dates, figs, grapes, and papaya.

 

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F13.
Fruits with low amount of pectin are; apricots, blueberries, cherries, peaches, pears, pineapple, raspberries, and strawberries.

 

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F14.
FAQ Answer 14f

 

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F15.
FAQ Answer 15f

 

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G1.
One sheet of gelatin is equivalent to one package of KNOX gelatin powder. I package is equivalent to 1 tbsp or 15ml of gelatin.

 

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G2.
Both pectin and gelatin are thickening agents and are both available in liquid and powder form. The main difference between gelatin and pectin is that gelatin is derived from animals, while pectin is derived from fruits. While pectin is mostly used in jams and jellies, gelatin is used in certain desserts; fruit mousses, marshmallows, bavarian cream, etc. Gelatin is an edible jelly derived from bones & skin of animals, while pectin is derived from ripe fruits especially from apples. For vegetarians Agar can replace gelatin.

 

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G3.
Bloomed gelatin is gelatin that has been soaking in water. If you are using gelatin powder , it is soaked to 4 times its weight in water. For example, if you are using 4g of gelatin powder, soak the gelatin in 16g of water. If you are using gelatin sheets (usually 2g / sheet) you simply soak them in a plastic container full of cold water until softened (a few minutes). Then, simply squeeze out excess water.

 

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G4.
Glucose is a liquid form of sugar. It gives softness and moistness to pastries, thus prolonging shelf life.

 

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G5.
FAQ Answer 5g

 

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G6.
FAQ Answer 6g

 

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G7.
FAQ Answer 7g

 

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G8.
FAQ Answer 8g

 

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H1.
High-ratio cake flour is a flour that can handle large quantities of sugar and liquids. It gives excellent crumb color and lots of volume to the final product.

 

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H2.
FAQ Answer 2h

 

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H3.
FAQ Answer 3h

 

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H4.
FAQ Answer 4h

 

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I1.

Invert sugar (also called Trimoline) is sugar that is about 30% sweeter than regular granulated sugar.  It holds the moisture better than plain granulated sugar, resulting in baked goods that stay fresher longer. The one ingredient that can replace Invert sugar is honey or corn syrup.

Invert sugar (also called Tremoline) has the following effects on pastry products;

  • Prevents sugar crystallization
  • Adds moisture to baked items because invert sugar is hygroscopic; it absorbs moisture from the air. 
  • Gives smoothness to fillings
  • Increases shelf life of baked products

 

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I2.
FAQ Answer 2i

 

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I3.
FAQ Answer 3i

 

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I4.
FAQ Answer 4i

 

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J1.
FAQ Answer 1j

 

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J2.
FAQ Answer 2j

 

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J3.
FAQ Answer 3j

 

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J4.
FAQ Answer 4j

 

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K1.
FAQ Answer 1k

 

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K2.
FAQ Answer 2k

 

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K3.
FAQ Answer 3k

 

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K4.
FAQ Answer 4k

 

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L1.
All viennese pastry doughs and bread doughs are all considered as leavened doughs.

 

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L2.
Croissant, Brioches and fougasse fall into the category of leavened puff pastry doughs. Fougasse is very similar to brioche, but they differ in that brioche uses milk and eggs, but fougasse uses mostly eggs.

 

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L3.
FAQ Answer 3l

 

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L4.
FAQ Answer 4l

 

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M1.
FAQ Answer 1m

 

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M2.
FAQ Answer 2m

 

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M3.
FAQ Answer 3m

 

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M4.
FAQ Answer 4m

 

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N1.
FAQ Answer 1n

 

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N2.
FAQ Answer 2n

 

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N3.
FAQ Answer 3n

 

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N4.
FAQ Answer 4n

 

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O1.
FAQ Answer 1o

 

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O2.
FAQ Answer 2o

 

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O3.
FAQ Answer 3o

 

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O4.
FAQ Answer 4o

 

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P1.
The main categories of puff pastry doughs are;

  • Standard puff pastry dough
  • Reverse puff pastry dough
  • Quick puff pastry dough

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P2.
As a pastry chef you are required to have a very good knowledge of a variety of cakes and art of decorating the cakes, working with chocolate, decorating mixtures, doughs, creams, viennese pastries, frozen desserts, indiviual desserts. This takes a lifetime of practice to master the techniques and to perfect all recipes.

 

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P3.
FAQ Answer 3p

 

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P4.
FAQ Answer 4p

 

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Q1.
FAQ Answer 1q

 

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Q2.
FAQ Answer 2q

 

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Q3.
FAQ Answer 3q

 

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Q4.
FAQ Answer 4q

 

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R1.
FAQ Answer 1r

 

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R2.
FAQ Answer 2r

 

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R3.
FAQ Answer 3r

 

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R4.
FAQ Answer 4r

 

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S1.
To make simple syrup is made by using equal parts of sugar and water by weight. This is equivalent to 27.8 degrees baumé. If you wish to use the syrup to moisten cakes, the amount of sugar should be less thatn the amount of water, in order to add minimal sweetness to the cake.

 

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S2.
FAQ Answer 2s

 

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V1. Viennoiseries -
Viennoiseries or Viennese pastries are pastries that are made from a yeast-leavened dough (bread dough) or puff pastry dough with added ingredients as eggs, butter, milk, cream and sugar.

 

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V2.
Pastry like milk bread, brioche, baba and savarin doughs are all part of Viennoiseries

 

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